10 Best Atomic Clocks | March 2017

We spent 31 hours on research, videography, and editing, to review the top choices for this wiki. Somewhere in the world, a single atom of caesium-133 is powering through millions of cycles of radiation that someone decided is the definition of a single second in time. This kind of precision can be yours with a simple purchase of one of the atomic clocks on our list. We've rated them by accuracy, features, and lifespan, so you'll never have an excuse to be late again. Skip to the best atomic clock on Amazon.
10 Best Atomic Clocks | March 2017


Overall Rank: 4
Best Mid-Range
★★★★
Overall Rank: 1
Best High-End
★★★★★
Overall Rank: 9
Best Inexpensive
★★★
10
If digital clocks aren't your thing, the La Crosse WT-3143A-INT is your answer. It has a handsome 14-inch diameter face with automatic setting features for things like daylight savings, yet appears to be a simple, traditional, analog clock.
9
Good things often come in small packages, and the Hito Bedside Travel is no exception to this rule. Its compact design makes it perfect for roaming the Earth, while its quality makes it suitable to sit by your bedside at home.
8
The Marathon Panoramic is a self-setting and self-adjusting option that has an impressively easy-to-read, 4-inch-tall display, and offers state-of-the-art styling suitable for the most modern home or office. It displays the temperature, date, and more.
7
Featuring a decent backlight on its face and a rotating projection capability that lets you read the time from any angle, the Radio Controlled Hito offers convenience and functionality at their best. Its pear-shaped body is both space-saving and attractive.
  • 2-year warranty included
  • ac power supply is provided
  • time zone settings are finicky
Brand hito
Model TALT-PN-734678574
Weight 12.8 ounces
6
The Meade Instruments TE346W Slim Line Personal Weather Station offers more information than you may need if all you want is a good clock. But if you like the idea of data ranging from humidity to temperature, this is the one for you.
  • easy-to-operate buttons
  • helps plan outdoor activities
  • remote wireless sensor built-in
Brand Meade
Model TE346W
Weight 8.8 ounces
5
The Sangean RCR-3 features a large LCD screen with adjustable brightness settings, 14 radio station presets, and a dual alarm to get you up on time. The alarm can wake you with music or with the company's Humane Wakeup System buzzer.
  • input for mobile devices
  • handsome analog face
  • instructions are poorly written
Brand Sangean
Model RCR-3
Weight 3.9 pounds
4
With its innovative ability to project the time onto your wall or ceiling, the AcuRite 13021 provides accuracy, clarity, and style when viewed from all directions. It is designed to run off AC power, but has a backup battery, too.
  • programmable alarm with snooze
  • built-in usb charging port
  • brightness settings need improvement
Brand AcuRite
Model 13021
Weight 9.6 ounces
3
The La Crosse WS-8157U looks equally stylish as either a wall unit or a desk clock. Its cherry panels frame a crisp, clean face with an attractive display that's easy to read, even at a quick glance. Its numbers are thick and bold.
  • offers weather forecast info
  • wireless temperature readings
  • low battery indicator
Brand La Crosse Technology
Model WS-8157U-CH-IT
Weight 1.9 pounds
2
The Marathon CL030025WD offers a 12- or 24-hour display option in several time zones. Its size and sleek design make it easy and fun to view. This unit is suitable for anywhere from the factory floor to a posh and modern living room.
  • c-cell batteries offer long lifespan
  • very easy to operate
  • folding stand is included
Brand Marathon
Model pending
Weight 4.5 pounds
1
The La Crosse 515-1316 might just be the last clock you ever need. It sports a supremely large display that's perfect for conference rooms, kitchens, classrooms, and more. It also features auto-updating functions for daylight savings.
  • self-sets time and date
  • hangs on walls or stands freely
  • alarm with 5-minute snooze
Brand La Crosse Technology
Model 515-1316
Weight 6.8 pounds

The Invention Of The Atomic Clock

The concept of measuring time by atomic transition was first proposed in 1879 by Lord Kelvin, but the technology wasn't yet on par with philosophy. It wasn't until over 50 years later when magnetic resonance was developed by Isidor Rabi, that an actual method for doing this emerged.

In 1945, he first publicly proposed that atomic beam magnetic resonance could be used for timekeeping. Just four years later in 1949, a functioning atomic clock was built at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards, which is currently known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology. It was an ammonia maser device and it was actually less accurate that existing quartz time clocks. It did demonstrate the feasibility of the concept though and promoted further research.

The first atomic clock that tracked the passage of time accurately, was built in 1955 by Jack Parry and Louis Essen. It was constructed at the National Physical Laboratory in the U.K. and used a caesium standard, which was based on a transition of the caesium-133 atom. The astronomical time known as ephemeris time (ET) was used to calibrate the caesium standard atomic clock because, at the time, it was the most accurate fundamental unit of time.

Basing the atomic clock on the caesium-133 atom led to the internationally agreed definition of the SI second. It being the duration of 9,192,631,770 cycles of radiation corresponding to the transition between two energy levels of the caesium-133 atom.

The Science Behind An Atomic Clock

The trick to counting time is by tracking the intervening span of time between something that occurs repeatedly with little, or preferably no, variation. Unfortunately, even the most precise quartz-crystal based clocks and mechanical pendulums will have slight discrepancies.

For this reason, the best method of keeping time is tracking the naturally occurring and exact vibrations in an energized atom. If exposed to specific radiation frequencies, electrons that orbit an atom's nucleus oscillate back and forth between different energy states. This is the basis for how atomic clocks track the passage of time.

Following the laws of quantum physics, all atoms emit or absorb electromagnetic energy when changing states. For every atom of a given element, all resonant emission frequencies are identical. Since caesium-133 atoms radiate energy at a fixed known frequency, their magnetic resonance can be used as a reference for tracking time in an incredibly accurate manner.

Inside of an atomic clock, caesium-133 atoms are sent down a tube and pass through radio waves transmitting at 9,192,631,770 cps. This causes them to resonate or vibrate and change to a new energy state. A detector at the other end of the tube is then used to track the number of atoms that have changed their energy state. The more tuned the frequency is to 9,192,631,770 cps, the more resonating caesium-133 atoms reach the detector. This information is then fed back into the radio wave generator and it synchronizes the radio waves frequency to match the one that created the highest number of caesium atoms striking the detector. This frequency is then counted and a second will be ticked off when the correct frequency count is met.

Though we have different types of atomic clocks these days, it doesn't matter whether they are based on hydrogen atoms, caesium atoms, or rubidium gas, the basic principal of how they work remains the same.

The Most Accurate Atomic Clock In The World

Atomic clocks have been incredibly accurate since they were first perfected in 1955, but scientist have worked hard since then to produce more and more accurate versions. The most recent record-breaking atomic clock doesn't lose even lose or gain one second in 15 billion years - which is the estimated age of the universe.

This new clock was developed at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) and is based on the oscillation of strontium atoms. It roughly three times more precise than the previous record holder, which wouldn't have lost or gained a second over a 5 billion year period. It is expected that this strontium-based atomic clock may one day become the standard on which the world's official time is based.

There have been previous strontium-based atomic clocks, but the newest one has improved on them by eliminating measurement errors resulting from external sources of electromagnetic radiation by placing radiation shields around the device. They have also placed platinum thermometers inside of the vacuum tube to account for the extra heat generated. Unlike previous versions that could only be operated at cryogenic temperatures, this new one functions at room temperature. The JILA clock is also precise enough to reveal the tiny shifts in time that were predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity.



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Last updated: 03/22/2017 | Authorship Information

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