The 6 Best Mortising Machines
6. Shop Fox W1671
5. Rikon 34-260
4. Jet JBM-5
3. Powermatic 719T
2. Powermatic PM701
1. Makita 7104L
Understanding Mortising Machine
Mortising is the act of putting a hole or recess into one item so that a tenon can fit inside of it. The technique gets its name from the mortise and tenon joint, one of the most commonly used joints by woodworkers. Through this method, two pieces of wood are usually connected at a 90-degree angle. If one wanted to build a table, they would have to mortise a leg before attaching it to the top. A mortising machine uses a motor to drill a rectangular or square hole into a piece of timber.
The user attaches a drill bit that corresponds to the size and shape of the hole they need to the motorized rotator on the machine. When they turn the machine on and place the bit on the timber, it creates a clean, symmetrical hole that is ready for a tenon. Depending on the project, the user may want more or fewer rotations per minute. A mortising machine also has a base that clamps onto the timber so that the wood stays still while the hole is put in place. Some models offer bases that swivel so the user can rotate the piece of timber and drill holes in different areas, without having to take it out and reposition it.
There are three main types of mortising machines: the square chisel, the horizontal (or slot) and the chain. The square chisel model resembles a drill press in its fixed style. It contains a chisel that ensures clean and straight edges and a drill that creates the hole. The horizontal mortiser has a router mounted on its side, and a workpiece attached to a multi-axis sliding table. This type of machine is best for floating tenons, which are created when two pieces of wood have corresponding mortises that must be attached via a third piece of wood. Chain models are best for large scale construction projects. They use chainsaw-style rotating cutters that simultaneously hold onto and cut the piece of wood.
Woodworking Safety Tips
Any woodworker, professional or a hobbyist, should wear goggles, a dust mask, and ear protection. If a tiny piece of wood flies into one's eye, it can cause severe damage to the cornea. Dust in the lungs may sound harmless, but it can be very dangerous. Because dust particles are so small, they can make it past your body's initial filters, like the nose and throat. Dust from a workspace can also contain toxins and fungi that can cause several infections like histoplasmosis, Q Fever or psittacosis.
Those new to woodworking might be shocked by how loud their equipment can be. That noise isn't only a nuisance, but it can cause damage to one's hearing, which is why wearing some form of ear protection is important. In fact, power tools are listed as some of the top items that can cause hearing loss. There are a few things woodworkers should not wear, like scarves, ties or long jewelry. If these items become caught in a mortising machine, they can quickly pull the wearer towards the cutters which can result in serious injury.
Don't keep electrical cords on the floor. If someone were to trip on these, they could knock over active cutting machines causing in injury to you or others. One should also never walk away from a machine that's been left on, nor should they use a tool until it is running at full speed. Tools are designed to give the user complete control only once they're running at their intended speed. Using one before that can cause the material being worked on to slip.
The History Of Woodworking
Woodworking is a craft nearly as old as humankind. Anthropologists who studied tools used by neanderthals found that even these ancient ancestors worked with wood. The oldest manmade wooden artifacts on record are 400,000-year-old spears that were found in the German town of Schöningen. Germany is the site of several ancient wooden artifacts, including coffins from the Bronze Age and animal statues from the Iron Age.
Ancient Egypt is also thought to have been a pioneer in woodworking. Copper and bronze tools have been found from 2000 BCE that historians believe were used for carving wood. Woodwork shops are also depicted in Ancient Egyptian drawings. People from the predynastic period (spanning the earliest human settlement to 3100 BCE) likely used mortise and tenon joints. This culture quickly deforested the Nile valley, and by the time the Second Dynasty was founded, they needed to import wood.
The Ancient Romans relied on wood as their main building material for most home construction. They used it to make pipes, waterproofing materials, tools, dye, and, of course, heat. The Roman architect Marcus Vitruvius wrote a full chapter on timber in his book "De Architectura," written sometime between 30 and 15 BCE. Ancient China also boasts a book on woodworking. A man named Lu Ban, who likely lived sometime between 771 and 476 BCE, allegedly wrote the book "Lu Ban Jing," in which he introduced the concept of the plane and chalk lines.