The 9 Best Paternity Tests
This wiki has been updated 19 times since it was first published in December of 2016. It used to be difficult for individuals to order laboratory tests for determining a child's biological father, but with the latest developments in technology, paternity kits are affordable and accurate, and let you collect samples in the comfort of your own home. The results you get from most options will not be admissible in court, though some do provide legal tests for an extra fee. When users buy our independently chosen editorial recommendations, we may earn commissions to help fund the Wiki. Skip to the best paternity test on Amazon.
Genetrack Biolabs If you need something that will stand up in court, this company has a legally-admissable option that can still be done at home. You can also test the mother at the same time, if you prefer. genetrackus.com
TestMe DNA One of the biggest downsides to performing the test yourself is the fear that you might mess it up somehow. You can sidestep that issue entirely by going to one of the company's labs, where professionals will handle your samples every step of the way, all but eliminating the possibility of an error. testmedna.com
LabCorp DNA This lab tests twenty-one loci, and that thoroughness gives you a one-in-a-billion chance of creating a false positive. It's expensive, but far cheaper than a lifetime of child support payments. labcorpdna.com
July 10, 2019:
One of the biggest factors we considered when making these rankings was whether lab fees were included or not. We felt that including the fees is a sign of a trustworthy company, as many others try to lure you in with a cheap initial investment, only to nickel-and-dime you with fees once they have you on the hook. The selections at the very top of the list all boast inclusive pricing.
Some companies — like the manufacturers of the HomePaternity Complete — take pains to keep you in the loop, which is always appreciated. They'll alert you when your samples have been received, as well as when testing is complete. This saves you from needlessly sitting by the phone or waiting by the mailbox for days on end.
Regardless of which kit you pick, however, it's important to use a dedicated paternity test rather than a generic ancestry kit. While the latter are a lot of fun and can be informative, they're not foolproof when it comes to establishing paternity — and this is one situation where being 100% certain is absolutely essential.
A Brief History Of Paternity Tests
It's never easy when a baby is born amid questions of their lineage.
For most of human history, figuring out who a child's father is has been tricky at best. Before the days of DNA testing, the best most people could do was ask themselves, "Does this kid really look like me?" Given what we now know about genetics, it's not a stretch to think that this method led to a lot of false positives.
Typically, the most common reasons a child's paternity was called into question was due to their skin tone or eye color not matching that of the father's. Of course, that's hardly an exact science. Due to the fact that there are a variety of genes involved in determining the hue of your iris, there's always a chance a child could have eyes that don't match either parent, even when the infant's lineage isn't in doubt.
By the early 20th century, however, the model shifted to favoring blood types instead. This was far more useful, as you can use blood types to disqualify paternity in some cases. For example, two parents with type O blood can only produce offspring with type O blood, so if the kid has something different, there was hanky-panky going on.
This method, while more scientifically-rigorous than simply comparing eye colors, still had only about a 30 percent success rate. Researchers kept trying, and in the 1970s, they discovered the human leukocyte antigen, which is much more dependent on genetic inheritance than blood type. Tests examining this antigen had closer to a 90 percent accuracy rate, which is obviously significantly better, but still provided lots of room for doubt.
DNA testing became the standard starting in the 1980s, due to the fact that every single person (save identical twins and the like) has a unique DNA profile that's an equal mixture of both parents. These tests boasted a staggering 99 percent accuracy rate.
Advances in testing continue to be made, and the most significant recent breakthrough involves using saliva instead of blood testing. These exams can be done at-home quickly and painlessly, and there are even tests using amniotic fluid that allow for establishing parentage before the child is born.
It's never easy when a baby is born amid questions of their lineage. However, modern testing makes it both easy and extremely reliable to determine the father, so that all parties involved can move on with their lives — and the child can grow up without any doubt as to who they truly are.
Choosing The Right Paternity Test
If you're investigating something as momentous as who a child's rightful father is, it behooves you to be sure that you get it right the first time.
See if the results will be sent to an AABB-accredited laboratory.
The first thing you need to know is that paternity tests are much more specific than typical ancestry panels, so skip all the products that promise to tell you your entire family history. You don't need to know whether the kid's great-great-grandfather came from Spain or Norway in 1910 — you need to know which guy he came from nine months ago.
Paternity tests examine your DNA, while most over-the-counter ancestry tools just trace the history of your 23 chromosomes. For something this important, it's worth it to be as exact as possible.
See if the results will be sent to an AABB-accredited laboratory. Some of the less-trustworthy options might send your panels to labs without high quality-control standards, and this is not something that you want to introduce any doubt into.
If you're getting the test done as part of a lawsuit, check with your lawyer or local authorities to find out which ones the court will recognize. After all, there's no point in going through all this hassle only to have the judge throw out your findings. The court may require you to go through a medical professional or government agency, though, so check with them before you plunk down your credit card.
What You Should Know Before You Test
Sadly, the circumstances around ordering a paternity test are rarely happy. Most of the time, they're used to avoid paying child support, or due to a partner's infidelity.
That being said, it's worthwhile to at least acknowledge that asking for a paternity test isn't likely to be well-received. You should only do so if you're reasonably certain that the identity of the child's father is in doubt, or if you're already willing to move on from the relationship, as the request will probably put a tremendous strain on the bond you share with the mother.
That being said, there are ways to find out if you're the dad without alerting the mother to your suspicions.
That being said, there are ways to find out if you're the dad without alerting the mother to your suspicions. Since these tests don't require any information from her, you could swab yourself and the child in secret, before using the information to decide how to proceed in the relationship.
If you're up-front about your desire to test and the mother refuses, however, you can always get a court order to perform the test. This is likely to happen in a custody or child-support hearing anyway, assuming you contest paternity. Be aware, though, that in many places, acting like the father puts you on the hook for raising the kid, even if your DNA doesn't match.
You should also consider the cost. Most at-home kits are less expensive than their legally-accepted counterparts, despite being every bit as accurate. Still, you can use the at-home models to decide if it's worth it to move on to one that a judge will deem acceptable, but if it goes that far, you should expect to plunk down at least a couple hundred bucks by the time everything is said and done. Granted, this is small potatoes compared to a lifetime of child support, but it is something to be aware of.
Hopefully, if you do end up going through with testing, you'll find an answer that's satisfactory to all parties involved — but especially to the child.
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